What is Environment, and Its Types?

The environment is our basic life support system. It provides the air we breathe, the water we drink the food we eat, and the land where we live.

Living and non-living things of our surrounding is called environment, which is perhaps the combination of the natural and human-made phenomenon.

In French environment is called as neighborhood

Environment meaning

As specified above environment can be classified into two groups like.

Natural environment and Human environment

Natural environment






It is a region in the earth, which is the solid and rigid outer layer of the earth; composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle. It has extends to a depth of about 60miles (10km).

Lithosphere is composed of 3 components or 3 layers like crust, mantle and core.

Let us not go in deep about these plate boundaries and tectonic plates.


The hydrosphere is nothing but total water content on this planet, whether it’s underground, or in the air as vapor, or in the surface, like lakes rivers, etc. If you view earth’s planet from space it looks blue in color due to its abundant presence of water on it.

So our planet earth is also named a blue planet or water planet. This feature of the presence of water on earth has made it unique from other planets from our solar system.

If we look at the distribution of water on earth is 71% of the earth is covered with water and remaining 29% is of land.

And the oceans hold about 96.5% of all earth’s water


It is the layers of gases surrounding the planet, which are held by the gravitational force, and divided based on temperature.

These layers are

  • The Troposphere
  • The Stratosphere
  • The Mesosphere
  • The Thermosphere and
  • The Exosphere


In simple, in this layer where weather changes occur. This is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere and it begins on the surface of the earth and extends to about 4 to 10 miles upwards, where the clouds rain, snow are present.

The temperature gets colder as we go upwards, that is the temperature of the troposphere decreases with an increase in altitude. This region has almost 75% of the air in the atmosphere. The region above the troposphere is Stratosphere.


This is the second lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere, In this zone the temperature rises with rise in altitude.

This is extended above tropopause to about 50Km, one could find this is most interesting because it has ozone layers, ozone layer could be found in this location.

Ozone layer helps in absorption the UV radiation which in other hand help from skin cancer and other damages.

Since stratosphere is free of all-weather disturbances, here is where all aero planes fly around.


This is the third layer of the atmosphere and this is the coldest layer, in this layer most of the space rocks, and meteors burn up before reaching the earth. It stretches up to 50miles from the earth’s surface.


Next is thermosphere where air is very thin. It extends up to 400miles from earth’s surface. Here where you can see the ionosphere at the bottom of the thermosphere.

It’s quite interesting because you can see many atoms ionize here and an electrical charge can be seen. In this ionosphere zone, where all satellite communications will takes place.


Very high up, the earths atmosphere becomes very thin and is mostly consists of helium and hydrogen.

Other gases such as atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide can also be found.

The exosphere is the region where atoms and molecules escape into space . It is above the thermosphere.

It starts at an altitude of about 500km and goes up to 10,000kilometre.

Though the upper level of exosphere is farthest point from the earth, it is still affected by the gravity.


The biosphere is all about living beings. This layer extends downward towards the depth of the oceans and upward to about 10 kilometers over the sea level.

Different varieties of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi live along with human beings. The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact between land, water, and air.


Human came to this earth around 4.9 billion years ago, however at the beginning of this creature, in other words, people or humans got adapted to their surrounding environment, what they were living,

These people they never thought of altering or changing their surroundings as per there need, perhaps as days go on, things changed completely human started to alter their environment for their need and comfort.

They wanted to lead a simple and comfortable life, so they later started to change the environment or surrounding for their comfort.

In the coming days, people learned to grown food, domesticate animals, and started a lead a settled life, before they were hunters and gathers.

Wheels were invented, domestication increased, Agriculture also started which in turn started to produce the surplus food product which made to start a barter system nothing but introduced the new word economics, trade and commerce developed, communication enhanced.

As technology advanced environment reduced, transportation became faster human named it as developed forgetting the changes they made to their own environment.

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