Chola dynasty administration is centralized which means it followed monarch system of administration, King was at the top of the administration.
They had capital cities at Tanjore and Gangaikondacholapuram, officials were called perundanam and sirudanam.
Chola empire is divided into Mandalams, Royal princes or officers were in charge. Mandalams which are in turn divided into valanadus which are under periyanattar, and nadus, that is to say the complex of numerous autonomous villages, which is under nattar.
Art and Architecture under the Chola dynasty
- Dravidian style
- The chief feature is Vimana
- Siva temple at Gangaikondacholapuram built by Rajendra I.
- The bronze of the Chola period was world-famous, the Nataraja or dancing Siva.
- The painting of Chola was found on the Narthamalai and Tanjore temple
“Puravuvarithinaikkalam” was the land revenue department .
The residential portion of the village was called as ur nattam, ur nattam and land belonging to the temple were exempted from tax.
Other than the hand tax , there was also other forms of taxes like tolls and customs. Professional taxes were collected. Kulottunga I abolished tolls and earned the title Sungam Tavirtta Cholam.
Military administration under chola dynasty
This dynasty consists of a standing army, elephants, cavalry, infantry, and many more.
The royal troops called Kaikkolaperumpadai. “Velaikkarar” the personal troops which was to protect the king.
They had strong naval power, they controlled the Malabar and coromandel coast.
Inscription Parantaka I found at Uttiramurur which provide information about village councils.
For example, there was around 30 wards which in turn divided into 6 Variyams.
Let’s look at the names of those Variyams. Like Samvatsaravariyam, Erivariyam , Thottavariyam, Pancha variyam, Pon variyam, and Puravuvari variyam.
Social and Economic life
The caste system prevailed, Brahmins and Kshatriya’s enjoyed special privileges. There were two major divisions among the castes like valangai and idangai castes.
Women’s position did not see any improvement. The practice of sati was common.
Moreover, The devadasi system or dancing girl attached to the temple emerged during this period.
The economic activities took place on temple premises. Mathas gained great influence, increased irrigation facility resulted in prosperous agriculture.
Commercial contact between the Cholas empire and China, Sumatra, Java, and Arabic were extensively prevalent at that time.
To strengthen the cavalry large numbers of Arabian Horses bought into the Empire.
Education and literature
An inscription at ennayiram, Thirumukkudal, and Thirubhuvanai provide details of the college that existed in some places.
Subsequently, development of Tamil reached a peak during this period.
Sivakasintamani written by Thiruthakkadevar and Periyapuram or Tirukkondarpuranam by Sekkilar is two masterpieces of that age.
Jayankondar’s Kalingattapparani describes the Kalinga war fought by Kulatunga I Nalavemba written by Pungalendi.
The work on Tamil grammar like Kalladam by Kallandanar, Yapperungalam by Amirthasagarr, virasoliyam by Buddamitra were the products of the Chola age.
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