Vedic culture origin begins with Sanskrit which entered northwest India from the Indo-Iranian region, through the passes in northwestern mountains.
They are cattle keepers who were in search of pastures. In the 6th century B.C, they occupied the whole of north India which was referred to as Aryavarta.
Vedic period (1500BC-600BC) which was further divided into
- EARLY VEDIC PERIOD/ RIG VEDIC PERIOD (1500-1000BC)
- LATER VEDIC PERIOD (1000-600B.C)
The original home of Aryans was not known but Bala Gangadhar Thilak opinioned Aryans came from the Arctic region.
Vedic literature consist of Four Vedas
- RIG VEDA-The oldest Veda, having 1028 hymns.
- YAJURVEDA-Details of rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice.
- SAMAVEDA-purpose of chanting during the sacrifice. It is called the book of chants and the origin of Indian music is traced in it.
- ARTHAVAVEDA- Contains details of rituals.
Other works includes Brahmanas, Upanishads, Aranyakas, Ramayana ( Valmiki)and Mahabharata (Vedavyasa)
Arayankas – Forest books and they deal with rites, rituals, and sacrifices.
- Aryas were mostly confined to the Indus region.
- The Rig Veda refers to saptasindu or The Land of 7 Rivers which includes Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beans, Sutlej, Indus, and Saraswathi.
- Families are joined together to form a village or grama the leader of the grama was known as gramani. A group of villages constituted a large unit called Visu, headed by Vishyapati.
- Tribes are Bharatas, Matyas, Yadus and Purus.
- King is assisted by Porohita and Senani.
- Sabha and samiti are popular bodies of sabha (council of elders) Samiti (general assembly of entire people).
Social life in vedic culture
- The Head of the family is Grahapathi.
- Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and intellectual development.
- Women poets like APLA, GHOSHA, AND LOPAMUDRA.
- No child marriage and the practice of Sati was absent.
- Curd and ghee, vegetable, and fruits were the chief articles of food.
- Eating cow’s meat was prohibited.
- Wealth estimated in terms of cattles.
- Gold coins are called Nishka were used as media of exchange in large transactions.
Religious in vedic culture
- Worshipped Earth, Fire, Wind, Rain, and Thunder.
- Important gods were Prithvi(EARTH), AGNI(FIRE), VAYU(WIND), VARUNA(RAIN), AND THUNDER(INDRA).
- FEMALE GODS LIKE ADITI and USHAS.
- No temples and no idol workship.
Later vedic period
- The satapatha Brahmana refers to the expansions of Aryans to eastern Gangetic plains.
- Kuru and panchala kingdoms flourished during this period.
- Kosala, kasi (important rule Ajatasatru) and videha (king Janaka) and important kingdoms.
Political organization in Vedic culture
King performed Rajasurya (consecration ceremony), Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice), and Vajpeya ( chariot race)King assumed titles like Rajavisrajanam, Ahilabhuvanapathi, Ekrat, and Samrat.
- The four divisions of society (Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras) were thoroughly established during the later Vedic period.
- Women did not see any improvement they were still considered inferior.
- Child marriage became common.
- As per Aitareya Brahmana, a daughter has been described as a source of misery.
Which is the oldest Veda ______________________
Arayankas deals with __________________________
Head of the family in vedic culture is ______________________________
Gold coins in Vedic period is called _________________
Female Gods in Vedic period is ______________________